– discuss]. In 1908, a government minister stated, in response to a parliamentary question, that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag". Irish National Flag The Union Flag, created by James in 1606, continued in use as a purely symbolic banner until 1707. [4] Additionally, it is used as an official flag in some of the smaller British overseas territories. 'South Africa's Dual Flag Arrangement, 1928-1957' in, Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism, Flags Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000, Services in the Internal Market Directive 2006, List of countries and territories with the Union Jack displayed on their flag, flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory, flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The official website of The British Monarchy", "Statement by the Hon. One theory goes that for some years it would have been called just the "Jack", or "Jack flag", or the "King's Jack", but by 1674, while formally referred to as "His Majesty's Jack", it was commonly called the "Union Jack", and this was officially acknowledged. The UK has several national symbols some of which are unique to its constituent countries. In 1938, Brian's father, Lord Montgomery Falsworth, was outraged at British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin's policy of appeasement towards Adolf Hitler's German regime. At first glance, the Union Jack might look like it has a symmetrical design. [94][93], The flying of the Union Jack alongside the National Flag ended on 6 April 1957. Other Commonwealth countries (such as India and Jamaica) may follow similar ensign etiquette as the UK, replacing the Union Flag with their own national flag. [86] The Union Flag remained as Canada's official flag until 1965; although from the late-19th century to 1965, the Canadian Red Ensign was also used as an informal flag of Canada. It is called the Union Flag because the United Kingdom is a union England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. According to the Flag Institute, a membership-run vexillological charity,[12] "the national flag of the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories is the Union Flag, which may also be called the Union Jack. Brian, however, was an isolationist and pacifist and disagreed with Lord Falsworth (his father's) views. Union Nationality and Flags Act 1927 (renamed 'Flags Act 1927' in 1949). Jack comes from the Latin for James, Jacobus. [15], However, the authoritative A Complete Guide to Heraldry published in 1909 by Arthur Charles Fox-Davies uses the term "Union Jack".[16]. The Union Jack The Union Flag, popularly known as the *Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. As it appears in the London Gazette, the broad stripe is where expected for three of the four quarters, but the upper left quarter shows the broad stripe below. There’s a rumour that it’s not actually called the Union Jack. It then comprised the age-old English flag of St. George, a square red cross on a white ground, combined with the diagonal white cross on a blue ground, … [81], The Union Flag was used as a flag of Australia until 1953, although the Australian blue ensign saw use as a governmental flag of Australia, and an informal national flag of the country since the early 20th century. However, when the flag is used as a ceremonial flag of Canada, the flag of the Canadian province/territory takes precedence before the Royal Union Flag. Likewise, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, has been known to fly a flag containing the King's Colours since 1973.[105]. As the two flags had to be the same size, it meant that the Union Jack was made in the ratio 2:3 rather than the usual 1:2. Notably, the home nation of Wales is not represented separately in the Union Flag, as the concept of a standardised national flag was not fully developed at the time of the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 integrating Wales into the Kingdom of England. The flag is worn at the masthead of a ship as an indication of the presence of an Admiral of the Fleet. However, Section 2 regards the "British flag", and states that "The flag which every British ship is entitled to fly is the Red Ensign (without any defacement or modification) and, subject to (a warrant from Her Majesty or from the Secretary of State, or an Order of Council from her Majesty regarding a defaced Red Ensign), no other colours. [64], In the run-up to the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, various non-official suggestions were made for how the flag could be redesigned without the St Andrew's Cross in the event that Scotland left the Union. In 1606 the first Union Flag appeared. [24] However, this assertion does not appear in any Reed's Nautical Almanac since 1993. This is the only occasion when it correct to describe the flag as the Union Jack". The history behind the Union Jack has been one of gradual evolution of the flag as the relationships between the four 'nations' of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland (now just Northern Ireland) have developed over time. [85], The predecessor to the Union Jack, the flag of Great Britain, has been used in British colonies in Canada since its adoption in 1707. Miss McCaul was determined that they should have the opportunity to do this and see London and all its sights. In the 2016 Reed's Nautical Almanac, the only entry where this might appear, section 5.21, covering Flag Etiquette, does not include this statement. On the plaque it is referred to as the "Jack of Queen Anne". It was then estimated that the alteration would cost at least £2,000,000. According to one story, the King of Hawaii asked the British mariner, George Vancouver, during a stop in Lahaina, what the piece of cloth flying from his ship was. It is so called because it combines the crosses of the three countries united under one Sovereign - the kingdoms of England and Wales, of Scotland and of Ireland (although since 1921 only Northern Ireland has been part of the United Kingdom). The Royal Navy's flag code book, BR20 Flags of All Nations, states that both 1:2 and 3:5 versions are official. The flag is created with the aspects of three older national flags; St George’s Red Cross of the kingdom of England, St Andrew’s white saltire of Scotland, and St Patrick’s red saltire of the Irelands. The current design of the flag dates back to 1801 during the Royal Decree after the union of the England and Ireland. In the United Kingdom, land flags are normally a ratio of 3:5; the Union Jack can also be made in this shape, but 1:2 is for most purposes. The blazon for the old union flag, to be compared with the current flag, is azure, the cross saltire of St Andrew argent surmounted by the Cross of St George gules, fimbriated of the second. It comprises of three flags - England, Scotland, and St Patricks (representing Ireland) After Queen Elizabeth I of England died in 1603, King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne and became King James I of England. The Union Flag is sometimes known as the Union Jack after its creator, James I of England, James VI of Scots. The ground of the current Union Flag is a deep "navy" blue (Pantone 280), which can be traced to the colour used for the Blue Ensign of the Royal Navy's historic "Blue Squadron". However, as Scotland voted against independence the issue did not arise.[65][66]. The Commissioners' flag of the Northern Lighthouse Board continues to use the pre-1801 design in the canton. Various other designs for a common flag were drawn up following the union of the two Crowns in 1603, but were rarely, if ever, used. The Union Jack also appeared on both the 1910–1928 and 1928–1994 flags of South Africa. Since she died childless and was unmarried, the crown was given to James VI who was her cousin and also the king of Scotland. This royal flag was, at first, to be used only at sea on civil and military ships of both England and Scotland, whereas land forces continued to use their respective national banners. While officers had their clubs, servicemen below commissioned rank had nowhere reputable to stay with their families in the nation’s capital. Why is the British Flag Called the Union Jack? She said, "the Government is keen to make the Union Flag a positive symbol of Britishness reflecting the diversity of our country today and encouraging people to take pride in our flag." Note that an upside-down flag must be turned over to be flown correctly, rotating it 180 degrees will still result in an upside-down flag. The Union Jack is used as a jack by commissioned warships and submarines of the Royal Navy, and by commissioned army and Royal Air Force vessels. James VI of Scotland had inherited the English and Irish thrones in 1603 as James I, thereby uniting the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland in a personal union, although the three kingdoms remained separate states. The Kingdom of Ireland was also not represented in the original version of the flag with the flag of the Protectorate between 1658 and 1660 escutcheoned with the Ireland’s arms. 2. Section 3. This is not the equivalent of the ensigns of the other armed services but is used at recruiting and military or sporting events, when the army needs to be identified but the reverence and ceremony due to the regimental flags and the Union Jack would be inappropriate. [22] This fimbriation is repeated for symmetry on the white portion of the saltire, which thereby appears wider than the red portion. [100][101] The Union Flag, in addition to other foreign flags, were also used by some protestors to illustrate their desire for Hong Kong to be an "international city"; whereas others used the flag simply as a generic symbol of freedom. ", "We Stand on Guard for Whom? [83] Section 8 of that Flag Act also specified that the formalization of the Australian blue ensign as the national flag did "not affect the right or privilege of a person to fly the Union Jack. The flag of the Province of British Columbia, Canada, The flag of the Province of Ontario, Canada, The flag of the Province of Manitoba, Canada, The flag of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, The flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory, The flag of the United States (1775–1777) later named the Grand Union Flag, The flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands (1815–1864), The flag of the Tamatave Kingdom (1822–1828), The flag of the Cook Islands Federation (1893–1901), The flag of British Heligoland (1807–1890), 1943 version of the flag of Malta until 1964, 1957 version of the Canadian civil ensign, used until 1965, The flag of British Trinidad and Tobago (1958–1962), Oranje-blanje-blou, or the flag of South Africa (1928–1994), The flag of Dominion of Newfoundland (1907-1931). Union Jack: History, Evolution And Tattoo Design Ideas. (The Office of the Lord Lyon does not detail specific shades of colour for use in heraldry.). Act 1993 and the consolidating Merchant Shipping Act 1995 which, in Section 4, Subsection 1, prohibits the use of any distinctive national colours or those used or resembling flags or pendants on Her Majesty's Ships, "except the Red Ensign, the Union flag (commonly known as the Union Jack) with a white border", and some other exceptions permitted elsewhere in the Acts. What Is The Meaning Behind The Colors of The Flag of The United Kingdom? [51], On land, evidence confirming the use of this flag appears in the depiction of Edinburgh Castle by John Slezer, in his series of engravings entitled Theatrum Scotiae, c. 1693. Winston Churchill who served as the prime minister of UK from 1940 to 1945 also referred to the flag as the Union Jack. [41] However, the flag of the Protectorate from 1658 to 1660 was inescutcheoned with the arms of Ireland. The history behind the Union Jack has been one of gradual evolution of the flag as the relationships between the four 'nations' of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland (now just Northern Ireland) have developed over time. [77] Non-government organisations may fly the Union Flag whenever they choose. [63] He said the Union Jack currently only represented the other three UK nations, and Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism Margaret Hodge conceded that Lucas had raised a valid point for debate. [96], The Union Flag was formerly used in Hong Kong when it was a British Dependent Territory. [9], According to the Parliament of the United Kingdom:[10][11] "Until the early 17th century England and Scotland were two entirely independent kingdoms. [28], In the Chinese language, the flag has the nickname Rice-Character Flag (米字旗; Mandarin Pinyin: mǐzìqí, Cantonese Jyutping: mai5zi6kei4), since the pattern looks like the Chinese character for "rice" (米).[29]. [90] British maritime flags were used by New Zealand vessels until 1865, with the passage of the Colonial Naval Defence Act. There are various theories as to how it became known as the ‘Union Jack’. Apart from the Union Jack, Saint Patrick's cross has seldom been used to represent Ireland, and with little popular recognition or enthusiasm; it is usually considered to derive from the arms of the powerful FitzGerald family rather than any association with the saint.[56]. Its original blazon, as decreed by George III of the United Kingdom on 1 January 1801, reads: "the Union flag shall be azure, the crosses-saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick quartered per saltire counter changed argent and gules; the latter fimbriated of the second [viz., argent]; surmounted by the cross of St. George of the third [viz., gules], fimbriated as the saltire [viz., argent]. All HEX, CMYK and RGB specifications for the Pantone colours are taken from the official Pantone website on the webpages of the corresponding colours. Probably it will be found that the deletion is not absolutely necessary. This is the only contemporary official representation of the pre-1801 Union Jack in the United Kingdom[43] and can be seen flying from their George Street headquarters in Edinburgh. It was later blamed on the actions of a researcher, who resigned yet claimed that the comment had been approved by White. The most plausible one is that when a small flag was mounted on the front of a warship (and a selected number of other ships) it was called ‘the Jack’. This could imply that there was still some use of a Scottish variant before the addition of the cross of St Patrick to the Union Flag in 1801.[50]. In objecting to the design of Union Flag adopted in 1606, whereby the cross of Saint George surmounted that of Saint Andrew, a group of Scots took up the matter with John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar, and were encouraged by him to send a letter of complaint to James VI, via the Privy Council of Scotland, which stated that the flag's design "will breid some heit and miscontentment betwix your Majesties subjectis, and it is to be feirit that some inconvenientis sail fall oute betwix thame, for our seyfaring men cannot be inducit to resave that flage as it is set down". Taunton, Massachusetts, used a flag with the old style Union Flag by a resolution on October 19, 1974. These were removed at the Restoration, because Charles II disliked them.[42]. For comparison with another anglophone country with a large navy: the Jack of the United States specifically refers to the flag flown from the jackstaff of a warship, auxiliary or other U.S. governmental entity. The Cross of St. George was succeeded by the first version of the Royal Union Flag, created in 1606 through the combination of the red Cross of St. George with the white saltire Cross of St. Andre… [73] While consultation on new guidelines is under way, the decision to fly the flag may be made by each government department. Although there was some ambiguity regarding the legality of it being flown for any other purpose on civilian vessels, its use as an ensign or jack was established well in advance of the 1864 Act that designated the Red Ensign for merchant shipping. James became King of Scots at one year old when his mother Mary Queen of Scots was deposed by rebel Scottish Lords. There’s a Right Way to Display It. This is expressed by the phrases wide white top and broadside up. Even the original flag of the United States, first raised in 1775 was "a jack with the union flag, and striped red and white in the field". The Union Jack is a fine expression of unity as well as diversity. The version used is the modern flag, whereas the 1707 flag would have been used in colonial Alabama. The Court of the Lord Lyon, which has legal jurisdiction in heraldic matters in Scotland, confirms that the Union Jack "is the correct flag for all citizens and corporate bodies of the United Kingdom to fly to demonstrate their loyalty and their nationality. [60], A Dáil question in 1961 mooted raising the removal of the cross of St Patrick with the British government; Frank Aiken, the Irish minister for external affairs, declined to "waste time on heraldic disputations".[61]. [21], The size and power of the Royal Navy internationally at the time could also explain why the flag was named the "Union Jack"; considering the navy was so widely utilised and renowned by the United Kingdom and colonies, it is possible that the term jack occurred because of its regular use on all British ships using the jackstaff (a flag pole attached to the bow of a ship).

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