However, I decided to solely ask members of the British public, instead of people from both the UK and US. loaded: 7300 lbs. “I took off and went so bloody fast!” he said. Other Spitfire squadrons were placed strategically in the South of England. Freeborn shot down a 109 in the second sortie and was leading a third sortie of 11 Spitfires at midday when he was given misleading information by the ground controller. At the time, Hawker was known for producing some of the most advanced aircraft in the world. The Hurricane vs The Spitfire . Having trained on a de Havilland Tiger Moth, he was now introduced to another biplane, the Gloster Gauntlet, which he appreciated for its gentle maneuverability. The Hurricane was the principal fighter in the Battle of Britain, not the Spitfire as most people think. “They were Germans and they had to go,” he said. Flight Commander Wilfred “Paddy” Treacy talked him through the controls and then wished the teenager good luck. A fighter attacked the enemy, whilst an interceptor was purely defensive. Others were more generous in their appraisal of the man, who was a vociferous anti-apartheid protestor in South Africa after the war. In modern pounds, this is worth roughly £790,000 ($1,000,000). Freeborn and Malan remained in 74 Squadron despite their mutual dislike. In 1934, the RAF’s WWI-era fighters were ageing too much for the RAF and they sought a replacement. Written for Malan by some actor friend of his who wrote for films.”, Freeborn died in 2010, the last of 74 Squad­ron’s Battle of Britain aces. During the Battle of Britain, Spitfires were the very public face of the battle. Although skeptical, the RAF was interested in the fighter, believing that if it could be mass-produced, it would continue Britain’s tradition of being the strongest military in the world (at the time). “He was controlling the squadron at 32,000 feet and 10/10ths cloud and he said there are bandits,” recounted Freeborn. He soon acquired a reputation for ruthlessness. So I had to come down through the cloud and that’s when we ran into the Messerschmitt 110s.”, Most of Freeborn’s combat reports were lost in the war, but his account of this encounter with dozens of Me-110s is one of the few that survived. But then he said, ‘It’s one of ours.’ When the adrenaline is running, you don’t realize these things. Major-General Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster, owner of the property company Grosvenor Group. These aircraft go for anything from $50,000 to $150,000. The Spitfire was armed with four .303 machine guns and two 20mm cannons, while the Hurricane carried four 20mm cannons. Gavin Mortimer is a British historian whose published works include histories of Merrill’s Marauders and the London Blitz. On top of this, we also interviewed several Hawker Hurricane owners, who told us that it can cost between $10,000 and $25,000 per year to insure a Hurricane with a reputable third party vendor! Depending on the number of kills and history, Hurricanes go for anything from $1.5 to 2.2 million. Depending on the year, aircraft history and service record, WWII-era Spitfires can fetch anywhere from $1.5 million to almost $7 million. The Hurricane vs The Spitfire . Pilot Peter Chesters; Pilot Officer Don Cobden, a huge man who had played rugby for New Zealand; and South African Malan. “If there were any aircraft anywhere I hadn’t seen them. Immediately following the end of the war, fighter aircraft remained in relatively similar roles. POWs Roger Bushell and Vincent “Paddy” Byrne flank a Luftwaffe guard at Luft Stalag III before the “Great Escape.” (Courtesy of Bob Cossey, 74(F) Tiger Squadron Association), Malan, who reportedly described Freeborn’s actions as “impetuous,” confirmed he had given the order to engage but also claimed that moments later, on realizing his mistake, he had called “friendly aircraft—break away!” Freeborn, Byrne and Flinders all said they never heard the counterorder. As a kid, I spent much of my summer going to air shows and air museums, where the Spitfire was always my favorite. I gave him a squirt or two and he hit a telegraph pole with his prop and it knocked him to pieces. [Stephen] would say I was a rotten bugger for doing that, but I didn’t shoot any, not at all.”. He was a bully.”. XIIa (left) and a Supermarine Spitfire Mk. The most common variant of the Hawker Hurricane is the Hawker Hurricane MK IIC. These aircraft are fairly cheap, fetching anywhere from $50,000 to $200,000 depending on the company and size of the aircraft. British propaganda of the era depicted Spitfires as taking on legions of Bf.109s whilst Hurricanes attacked German bombers. Although the Type 224 was the superior aircraft, RAF higher ups were skeptical of monoplane designs. However, when the British were on their knees in 1941, the role of fighter aircraft and interceptor were one in the same. Length: 31 ft. 4 in. “I caught this one knocking bloody seven bells out of a Spitfire over Dunkirk,” he remembered of the Messerschmitt Me-109E he encountered on the French coast. “He wasn’t received very nicely,” said Freeborn of the prime minister. “I had respect for their pilots—they were very good—but they didn’t like to mix it.”. 74 Squadron members includes Malan (circled in red) and Freeborn (circled in white). He was a brilliant pilot, but he was as evasive on the ground as he was in the air, a mix of showman and politician. However, almost 25% more Spitfires were produced in total. As with the Hurricane, several Spitfires are still flying today, mostly as warbirds. He was in poor health and lonely, so he enjoyed talking about old times. Hurricane vs Spitfire: Specs. Re: Spitfire vs Hurricane Hurri was more stable when firing, apparently if you put your pipper on the target even with a long burst the aircraft would not wallow or pitch during the firing, the Spit was a bit more fidgety, being a more responsive aircraft, This is alongside the Japanese Zero, Soviet Yak-3, North American P-51, German Bf.109 and the French Caudron C.714. But it quick enough to target bombers. Alongside Hurricanes, some squadrons of Spitfires were placed in France as deterrent. Who was the best? Many of the people I interviewed stated this fact as well. Adrenaline coursed through the pilots as they headed east to intercept aircraft that a searchlight battery had reported approaching the Essex coast at high altitude. As such, there are several variants of both aircraft that were used throughout the war. Height: 13 ft. 12 ft. 7 in. During the war, my grandfather had served as a Hurricane pilot, flying between 1943 and 1945. During the Battle of Britain there were 32 Squadrons with Hurricanes and only 19 Squadrons of Spitfires. The incident has become known as the Battle of Barking Creek, which is curious given that Bark­ing Creek is in east London and Freeborn shot down Hulton-Harrop many miles north over rural Essex. That’s why it didn’t bother me, or anyone else in the squadron, if you weren’t successful during a sortie. But even so, the Hurricane’s performance was a huge step forward for the RAF – it was the first RAF plane capable … Due to the changing nature of German aircraft, the RAF ordered several variants of the Hurricane and Spitfire to be built. This includes maintenance, which often doesn’t come cheap, especially for the authentic item. He could be provocative, yet his character was underpinned by an acute sense of probity. “We landed back at North Weald very angry at the terrible mess-up where our controllers had so irresponsibly vectored two wings onto each other, guns loaded and pilots warned for combat,” he remarked after the war. It also marked the first of Freeborn’s 13½ kills. However, we also need to look at something else: cost. As a kid, my grandfather would tell me stories and show me intricate things on the Hurricane, many of which I still remember. But luck came into it, too, particularly in shooting down the enemy. He wouldn’t give us any more money. Repositioning to attack from the rear, Byrne dispatched one of the aircraft and Freeborn opened fire on the other with his Spitfire’s eight Browning .303-inch guns, sending it down in flames. In 1939, Supermarine Aircraft, then a division of Vickers-Armstrong, listed the price for one Supermarine Spitifre at £12,604. He was in B Flight, commanded by Treacy, as was another Irishman, Byrne. That proved too much for John Freeborn. “They went to school together, they both came from Dublin and they fought a lot,” recalled Freeborn. I was again attacked from astern by a 110…and I took decisive action coming up under him and sending a long burst into his tailplane. Ia re-enact the Battle of Britain during a Duxford Airshow. In 1931, the RAF wanted a new fighter, soliciting aircraft manufacturers to send in new designs. “I said to the doc, ‘Look at those buggers playing golf and here we are fighting a war.’ I gave them such a s—-ing up and they were lying flat on their faces. © International Aviation HQ. Ldr. As usual, I asked several different groups about their opinions on both the Spitfire and the Hurricane. rt of Comparative Trials of Hurricane versus essersc I have the honour to infom you that, in accordance verbRL Instructions Headquarters, a section of Of B.A.F.F., Squadron proceeded to ORLEANS on 2nd May , 1940, to carry out certain pre 1 Iminary triEAs to assess the quall ties of a Hurricane … “We had two great barristers in Sir Patrick Hastings and Roger Bushell [later murdered by the Nazis for his part in organizing the ‘Great Escape’],” said Freeborn. Due to the changing nature of German aircraft, the RAF ordered several variants of the Hurricane and Spitfire to be built. Suddenly Malan’s voice called over the radio: “Tally-ho! “A daft way to die,” reflected Freeborn of his best friend. The remaining people spoke about how the Hurricane was the workhorse of the RAF during the Battle of Britain. Indisputably, they brought out the best in each other. Spitfire vs. Recommend Video 17 Recommends. If you were interested in owning and operating a Hawker Hurricane (from WWII) you’d be looking at an aircraft that costs around £3,000 ($5,000) to operate per hour, including maintenance. This was because Supermarine Aircraft had sent in a design of an aircraft that would one day become the Spitfire, which was far superior. These aircraft can go for anything from $1 to $3 million. Unfortunately, the enemy aircraft supposedly sighted by the searchlight battery did not exist. The next day there was a squadron scramble that proved to be a false alarm. Number one attack. 31 ft. 3 in. As has been said, the Hurricane and Spitfire were going after the bombers mostly. The Supermarine Spitfire was a very serious rival to the German Messerschmitt Bf 109, abbreviated Me 109, and it developed during the Battle of Britain in 1940 into a very worthy opponent, although one with different flying qualities. The Spitfire would subsequently make its maiden flight on March 5 1936, before being introduced in August 1938. (Imperial War Museum CH158). The final proof is the Hurricane outscored the Spitfire in Battle of Britain kills. As such, hawker privately funded a redesign, looking to make the P.V.3 a monoplane. “As soon as he saw me, he pushed his stick forward, which we [Spitfire pilots] couldn’t do because the engine would stop and it would be some time before the carburetor would be able to flow again. I would say ‘get in the air’ and they would say, ‘I don’t want to.’ But I did. During the Battle of Britain, there were 32 squadrons of Hurricanes compared with only 19 squadrons of Spitfires, yet the Spitfire is … They couldn’t have cared less. Freeborn joined the RAF in 1937 and was posted in October 1938 to 74 Squadron with the rank of acting pilot officer. Byrne had shot down the 56 Squadron Hurri­cane flown by Frank Rose, who managed to bail out, but Freeborn had downed his wingman, 26-year-old Pilot Officer Montague Hulton-Harrop, who was dead, the first British pilot combat fatality of the war. These could serve as protective aircraft for both France and Britain in case of a German incursion or invasion of either country. I can see to this day the old farmer who was alongside ploughing, and this 109 went on, straight through his cottage, and he’s shaking his fist at me.”, Having shot down one of his own pilots, it was a relief for Freeborn to dispatch an enemy for whom he felt no pity. Although the Spitfire has attracted more attention, the Hurricanes were more numerous and were responsible for most of the German losses, especially in the early part of the battle. You could only do what you could do.”. At 0645 hours on September 6 there was another scramble and Flight Lt. Adolph Malan, nicknamed “Sailor” because of his stint as a naval cadet, led Red Section through a thick ground mist into a clear blue sky. I was only a kid and I’d never flown a monoplane.”. Hawker Hurricanes during the Battle of Britain (Photo from the Imperial War Museum) The Hurricane, with its wood and fabric construction, was also easier for ground crews to repair and conduct maintenance on. One of their conversations resulted in abandonment of the Vic formation of three aircraft in favor of the finger-four formation. “Practicing all the time,” he replied. The turn-around time (re-arm and refuel) for the Spitfire was 26 minutes, while the Hurricane's was 9 minutes, which increase… these eight guns are weaker than the four used on the Hurricane. This is far cheaper than modern fighter jets like the F-22 and F-35. Had Flinders not intervened, Freeborn probably would have also shot down a Bristol Blenheim he believed to be a German bomber. “I used to take the piss out of Stephen and say, ‘Oh, you should have seen him, climbing up his bloody shroud lines,’” remembered Freeborn. Nonetheless, Freeborn liked Malan well enough to apply for a transfer to his A Flight, and early on the morning of September 6 the South Afri­can led his flight to intercept the approaching hostiles high over Essex. He also added that the Hurricane was less maneuverable than the Spitfire, however, was more so than its German counterparts. Freeborn was in no mood for pleasantries. It created friction between Malan and myself, but not the rest of the squadron. “I think I would have shot down more if it weren’t for Flinders, the sergeant pilot,” said Freeborn. Number one attack. This aircraft was known as the Hawker P.V.3, which resembled the WWI-era Hawker Fury. On April 11, 2015 October 30, 2015 By Corporal Frisk In Air, Historical. (Courtesy of Bob Cossey, 74(F) Tiger Squadron Association), Freeborn did do the odd daft thing in the war, on one occasion buzzing two golfers on a local links course. The changing nature of the air war over Europe drove a slew of upgrade programmes for both aircraft. Dassault Falcon 50: Dassault’s Most Famous Jet Yet! A turning radius quoted as 800 feet for the Hurricane and 880 feet for the Spitfire. During this time, both aircraft served alongside one another in combat, with people often wondering which was better. They couldn’t find him. When Malan died in 1963 of Parkinson’s disease, The Times of London said in his obituary that he had been an inspiring and unselfish leader in combat and in politics. All of these aircraft were biplanes or triplanes due to their perceived superiority. The most famous of these was during the Defense of Malta, where Spitfires destroyed their own bases in order to prevent German occupation. Both the Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire served in many of the same battles during WWII, often side-by-side one another. The Spitfire is noticeably faster than the Hurricane, although, sacrifices range for speed. For most British people, they preferred the Spitfire, with the response being almost instantaneous. However, with the widespread introduction of jets in the 1950’s, and the onset of the Cold War, both the Hurricane and Spitfire were retired. Both aircraft are the same height, with the Hurricane being only mildly longer and wider. Freeborn and Byrne had a first-class defense team. Their collaboration bore fruit on August 11 when the squadron flew into combat four times between dawn and 1400, accounting for 23 enemy aircraft, one probable and 14 damaged. The Luftwaffe tactics … This is mostly down to them being British, and with the role of the Spitfire during the Battle of Britain being emphasized on us since we were small children. The reason for that notoriety is due to the team's staggering success, which developed over the weekend as they were crowned the European Gauntlet 2020 Champions. Before we can compare both the Hurricane and the Spitfire, we must first understand the basics behind both of the aircraft. Tactics of Japanese "Tony" Type Fighter 1. Malan wasn’t liked. Further reading: Tiger Cub: A 74 Squadron Fighter Pilot in World War II, by Christoper Yeoman and John Freeborn; and Tiger Squadron: The Story of 74 Squadron, RAF, in Two World Wars, by Ira Jones. As one of the few surviving RAF pilots who had flown night patrols against the Germans, his input was invaluable. Entering service in late 1937, the Hurricane was the brainchild of designer Sydney Camm and represented an evolution of the earlier Hawker Fury. Hurricanes served in the defense of Malta, the defense of the Soviet Union and against Rommel in Libya. One pilot absent from the hard labor was Pilot Officer John Freeborn, a 19-year-old who spoke his mind with a confidence that belied his tender years. Did that include lying to protect his reputation? By 1939, the Spitfire was significantly faster and had a higher rate of climb, according to Dennis Richards and Richard Hough in The Battle of Britain, and they noted, ‘In handling, there was little to choose between the two,’ The authors went on to point out that the Hurricane’s twin batteries of four Brownings closely grouped together in the wings was preferred to the ‘widely scattered’ guns in the Spitfire’s … Occasionally, these other aircraft were bombers, but were also other fighter aircraft. By the outbreak of WWII, the RAF already had a series of Spitfire squadrons based at RAF Duxford (now IWM Duxford). “I was in the middle of 30 or so bloody Germans and it felt good to give the Germans some stick of their own.”, That evening Winston Churchill arrived at 74 Squadron to congratulate the pilots for their achievements. I then returned to Hornchurch.”, The first of Freeborn’s two kills gave him particular satisfaction. The Merlin powered Hurricane and Spitfire were instrumental in neutralizing the German Luftwaffe's attempt to gain air superiority over Britain, reducing the effectiveness of German bombing and preventing an Axis invasion. Air Koryo: Inside North Korea’s Most Secretive Airline…, F-16 vs F-35: The Future of The Air Force?…, 8 × .303 in Browning Mk II machine guns (350 rounds per gun). The Spitfire, Hurricane, and Fw-190, with their “vertical” landing gear and heavier structures, fared much better. But it wasn’t. Sailor Malan was 74 Squadron’s ace of aces, finishing the war with 27 victories. Transcript. The RAF and Supermarine made a few tweaks to the K5054 before calling it the Spitfire. After all, you could have the best aircraft in the world, but if it costs too much, or you can manufacture ten weaker aircraft for the same amount, numbers will eventually give way. Gareth Seagull is a traveler and former Airbus A320 pilot. While both the Hurricane and Spitfire designs were improved upon after their disastrous defeat by the Me/Bf 109's and Fw 190's early in the war, the Spitfire was more focused on by British engineers than the aging Hurricane … To subscribe, click here! Perhaps the fairest assessment of what happened that September morning is to attribute it to the fog of war. This is what they had to say…. Overall they achieved a greater kill:ratio but against the Bf-109 it was lower due to obvious reasons; the Bf-109 always had the height and numercial advantage. Handsome and charismatic, Malan was at first friendly with Freeborn, but slowly another side began to emerge. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The Spitfire also had better armaments throughout the generations than the Hurricane. Freeborn’s methods upset some of his fellow pilots. He promptly shot them up and consigned them to their maker.” Freeborn acknowledged the incident with a laugh. Hurricanes from 151 Squadron had also been scrambled, and Sqd. In the dogfight with the Messerschmitts he had lost two pilots, including his friend Don Cobden. “I made a sharp turn and got directly onto an E/A [enemy aircraft] which I gave a short burst of 2/3 secs and E/A turned and went down. In the Battle of Britain, the Hurricane shot down about twice as many Nazi (german) aircraft, compared to the Spitfire. Today, this £4,000 is roughly the same as £260,000 ($350,000) today, which made it one of the cheaper aircraft of its time. Edward Don­aldson, who witnessed the attack, had no doubt who was to blame. During WWI, Pemberton-Billing (the forerunner of Supermarine) had produced a series of fighter aircraft and bombers. Asked if he followed Adolph "Sailor" Malan’s “Ten Rules for Air Fighting,” John Freeborn, seen atop his Spitfire Mk. What hadn’t dulled over the years was his character: Like many Yorkshiremen he was forthright, funny and fearless in what he said. But which was truly the better aircraft in battle. Both prior and during WWII, the Hurricane and Spitfire were immensely successful aircraft. “I was teaching the doctor to fly, as all medical officers were permitted to fly, and there were two blokes playing golf,” he explained. Yellow Section—Flying Officer Vincent “Paddy” Byrne; his no. Since WWI, Hawker Aircraft, under the helm of Harry Hawker himself, had produced much of the RAF’s military aircraft. Today, most people view both the Hurricane and Spitfire as some of the best WWII-era fighter aircraft ever made. Naturally, the two pilots who’d only flown one aircraft preferred their own aircraft, generally having very generic, pilot-related reasons (such as “they handle better”) although did comment on the other’s adeptness in battle. Weight: 7200 lbs. He was a brilliant pilot, but he was as evasive on the ground as he was in the air, a mix of showman and politician. “He told him he was a downright bloody liar.”, The court-martial lasted half a day and, after considering the evidence, the tribunal acquitted Freeborn and Byrne. “Hastings didn’t half take Malan to pieces,” recalled Freeborn. By August 1935, the redesign was complete with one prototype having been built. The role of WWII fighter aircraft differ greatly from modern fighter aircraft. “My confidence didn’t really suffer,” reflected Freeborn of the incident. Freeborn was in his mid-80s when I got to know him, living by himself in northwest England, having outlived two wives. Despite replicas being produced, their parts are often incompatible with the actual thing, making cannibalizing old Spitfires the only other option. Following the Battle of Britain, the Hurricanes would be dispatched all over Europe and North Africa. By 1945 the Spitfire was regarded as the superior fighter to the 109, especially at heights over 20,000 feet. You couldn’t stop him—too big and strong.”. It was highly manoeuvrable, with a turning circle even tighter than that of a Spitfire. “I would sometimes fly quite close to frighten them, so close the slipstream would hit them and it would blow the parachute all over the place. Supermarine was one of these aircraft manufacturers, sending in the Type 224 monoplane. 56 Squadron at North Weald. Byrne had landed and was under close arrest, and when I landed [squadron commander] George Sampson was waiting and I’m under close arrest. He also added that the Hurricane handled better, although that is rather subjective…. According to him, despite the aircraft being slower on paper, it was faster than German Bf.109s and Spitfires. All rights reserved. In the UK, we are taught about the Battle of Britain as children, with an emphasis being placed on the Spitfire’s contribution. Hurricanes were the primary aircraft used against the Luftwaffe during the evacuation of Dunkirk. We recently compared the P-51 Mustang and Spitfire, where we were inundated with requests for a Hurricane-Spitfire comparison. Thanks to the Spitfire’s service record during WWII, many people have found parts of Spitfires and have restored them to flying condition. There were other strong characters in the squadron: Sgt. The … (Imperial War Museum CH158) Repositioning to attack from the rear, Byrne dispatched one of the aircraft and Freeborn opened fire on the other with his Spitfire’s eight Browning .303-inch guns, sending it down in flames. During the Phoney War, British Hurricanes were stationed in France, with the French and British believing that this would deter German forces. A short while later he spotted what he took to be a Luftwaffe bomber and closed in for the kill. Some of these are full size, whilst others are only 2/3 the size. Many UK-allied militaries were also evaluating the Hurricane, with Yugoslavia already implementing several Hurricane squadrons. In 1939, Hawker Aircraft listed the price of a brand new Hawker Hurricane at £4,000. As well as restorations, several companies have designed and built replica Spitfires. That was the end of that.”. While less heralded than the famed Supermarine Spitfire, the Hurricane scored the majority of the RAF's kills during the Battle of Britain in 1940. It was 55 %to the Hurricane versus 45% to the Spitfire. For the most part, during the war, fighter aircraft and interceptors were different from one another. The Mark I Hurricane of 1939-40 could reach 325 mph, and 35,000 feet, compared to the Spitfire’s 360 mph, and the Spitfire had a better rate of climb. loaded: 7300 lbs. “I got him down with about four bullets from each gun and he just burst into flames,” he recalled. “He was a swine. The 80th Fighter Squadron has twice encountered "Tony" type fighters in combat, both times in the vicinity of Bogadjin. In the inter-war period, Hawker had continued to produce military aircraft on a reduced scale as well as racing and general aviation aircraft. Hurricane : Spitfire : Specifications: Span: 40 ft. 30 ft. Rick Nielsen, musician, vocalist, primary songwriter of the band Cheap Trick. 2, Acting Flying Officer John Freeborn; and Sgt. “I never did daft things like that, or if you do, you do them properly, not the way he did it.”, A lineup of No. Never saw him. Hawkshaw Hawkins (Harold Hawkins), country singer; he died along with country stars Patsy Cline and Cowboy Copas when the small plane that was carrying them crashed in 1963. Required fields are marked *. is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. E/A fell as T/p broke up, falling in a spiral. Hurricanes used in the Western Desert were not capable of matching it with the by-then substantially upgraded Me 109s, and subsequently they became more of a fighter-bomber, used in ground support. I watched him go down to 5,000 ft before breaking off due to being short of petrol and ammunition. Following the Allied defeat at Dunkirk, Spitfires, along with other brand new British aircraft were ordered to evacuate to Britain to avoid the aircraft being capture, tested and reengineered by the Germans. I also dispute that the Spitfire was one jump ahead of the Bf109 and Fw190. They couldn’t have cared less. Although many others simply spoke about how iconic they were! For the most part, both the Hurricane and Spitfire are similarly sized aircraft. The Spitfire’s long nose prevented Freeborn from seeing where he was going, and the sheer power of his new mount took him by surprise. Conversely, the Spitfire’s metal construction meant that skilled metal workers were needed to conduct repairs. On February 13, 1939, 74 Squadron took delivery of its first Spitfire. During WWII, a fighter aircraft was any aircraft, who’s sole purpose was to engage (and hence fight) enemy aircraft. This aircraft would first fly on November 6 1935, following RAF testing, the Hawker Hurricane would enter service with them in December 1937. Also scrambled were 12 Hawker Hurricanes from No. On top of this, modern pop culture, through many aviation-themed movies have also distorted the role of modern fighter jets somewhat. I, dismissed them as “a lot of rubbish.” (Courtesy of Bob Cossey, 74(F) Tiger Squadron Association). Pilots were instructed to sharpen up their visual identification of aircraft, while the training of controllers, plotters and radar operators was improved.

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