He claims that their goal for war was to be short and massive. Chapter 21 says the first praetor the Romans sent anyplace was to Capua, four hundred years after they began making war. [74], The heading for Chapter 33 asserts that "If one wishes to win a battle, it is necessary to make the army confident both among themselves and in the captain. Thus, Book I examines a variety of issues that occur when creating a state, and looks at it with specific examples from Rome and other parts of Italy.[12]. [86] According to Machiavelli, "Whoever reads of things past in our city of Florence and considers also those that have occurred in the nearest times will find German and French people full of avarice, pride, ferocity, and faithlessness, for all those four things have much offended our city in diverse times. And the reason ... is solely the Church, for having acquired and held temporal Empire; she has not been so powerful or of such virtue that she was able to occupy the rest of Italy and make herself its Prince. I discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio (1513-1518) Mentre il Principe è un'opera unitaria, i Discorsi già dal titolo suggeriscono l'idea di una serie di divagazioni, a partire da Ab Urbe Condita (della fondazione di Roma) dello storico latino Tito Livio. "[33] Machiavelli writes, "I have often considered that the cause of the bad and of the good fortune of men is the matching of the mode of one's proceeding with the times. "[36] They misinterpret this great Roman's deed, however, as according to Machiavelli, it "is nothing other than to say:'Do battle to the enemy's purpose and not yours. 1517) pelo escritor florentino Nicolau Maquiavel, mais conhecido como o autor d'O Príncipe.Foram publicados postumamente, em 1531. "[19] This event functions as advice to future princes, "every prince can be warned that he never lives secure in his principality as long as those who have been despoiled of it are living. [9], The Samnites were defeated by the Romans several times and in order to change this they decided find a new approach to their religion.[10]. "[16] He relates this to his native Florence, where "from 1434 up to 1494", such things were done "to regain the state...otherwise, it was difficult to maintain it. Chapter 26 claims vilification and abuse generate hatred against those who use them, without any utility to them. He thinks that fraud makes it quicker and easier for a person to succeed, so force is not needed as much. 2. "[60] If one was to decipher Machiavelli's statement into modern terms, he believes that bureaucracy and inefficiency resulted in the demise of the Roman Republic. Claims that the Romans were changing things and were acting differently from past precedents. They attacked the enemy in two entirely different manners, one slow and defensive, the other exhausting his army in a furious manner. Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. Because of his inability to crush his enemies, Soderini would eventually go into exile. Nascondi Commenti, Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. Chapter 28 says how dangerous it is for a Republic or a Prince not to avenge an injury done against the public or against a private person. "[50] Close to the end of the Roman civil war between Brutus and Cassius and Marc Antony and Octavian, Brutus won the battle on his wing but Cassius believed that Brutus had actually lost. Discorsi, an Italian word meaning "discourses", may refer to: . [84] He raises the story of Pontus, captain of the Samnites, who sent some of his soldiers in shepherds clothing to the Roman camp so that they could be lead them into an ambush where Pontus's army was waiting. Questo sito usa Akismet per ridurre lo spam. [92] Due to the expediency of this fix, and the fact that it was well received by the people of Rome, he gained the name "Maximus". "[14] According to Machiavelli, "this good emerges in republics either through the virtue of a man or through the virtue of an order. LIBRO PRIMO. O título da … Informazioni sulla fonte del testo Citazioni di questo testo. 2, cop.fle., dim. He then takes examples of conspiracy to his own time, writing of the conspiracy of the Pazzi against Lorenzo and Giuliano de' Medici. Values and ideologies were being lost, and soldiers just were not the same as they used to be. Niccolò Machiavelli. "[28] He establishes that "conspiracies that are made against the fatherland are less dangerous for the ones who make them than those against princes. "[51], Chapter 20 concerns the story of Camillus when he was besieging the city of the Falsci. Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio. Machiavelli frequently describes Romans and other ancient peoples as superior models for his contemporaries, but he also describes political greatness as something which comes and goes amongst peoples, in cycles. La Libreria Humanitas-Kretzulescu di Bucarest ospita il 12 novembre un evento di eccezione: la presentazione della prima traduzione romena dei Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio di Niccolò Machiavelli, attesa da decenni nel nostro Paese. He also states that Livy gives many examples of when religion was utilized to restructure the city. Rucellai had died in 1519, but this did not lead Machiavelli to find a new dedicatee, as he had with The Prince. Niccolò Machiavelli - Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio (1531) Libro primo Capitolo 9. Machiavelli then excuses Romulus for his crimes,[5] saying he acted for the common good in bringing "civil life". Nor this confidence arise except in soldiers who have been born and lived together. He gives the particular example that in Florence right before the death of Lorenzo de' Medici the Elder, a cathedral was hit by lightning. Clearly they did wrong, and one does not need that kind of negative influence in one's life. "[61] He recalls the story of the great Cincinnatus, who, when the Rome was in grave danger, was made dictator by the Senate and saved the Republic. Chapter five talks about how memories can be lost due to issues such as language barriers, floods, or even plague. "[87] There is great reward to being ambitious in key moments like a battle. "[19], The heading of Chapter 4 is, "A prince does not live secure in a principality while those who have been despoiled of it are living. Ne nacque, invece, un trattato sulle repubbliche in tre libri, nel quale il riferimento all’opera del grande storico romano offre solo l’occasione per l’elaborazione di una teoria complessiva, anche se non sistematica, del rapporto tra Stati e Popoli. Dangers are found in conspiracies at three times: before, in the deed, and after. [92], Francesco Guicciardini, Machiavelli's close friend and critic, read the book and wrote critical notes (Considerazioni) on many of the chapters. But if they are such quality that their forces are not enough for making open war, they should seek with all industry to make themselves friends to him..."[17] Machiavelli describes a middle path where you can enjoy the fortunes of the prince you have become familiar with, but not fall into ruin should he encounter it; one keeps his distance but also quite close. 1. In a similar manner, when Hannibal marched through Italy, many cities rebelled and followed him. "[21], Chapter 6, the longest chapter in the book, pertains to conspiracies. 22 relazioni. Once the Tarquins left Rome there seemed to be peace and alliance between the patricians and the plebs, but this in fact was untrue. A good deal has been made of the coincidence that Livy's history also contained 142 books in addition to its introduction and other numerological curiosities that turn up in Machiavelli's writings. [41], Chapter 13 begins with a question: "Which is more to be trusted, a good captain who has a weak army or a good army that has a weak captain. Fortune acts similarly to the activity of gods, yet it is different in that it exists naturally and benefits those who demonstrate virtue. "[22] He cites the verdict of Cornelius Tacitus as someone everyone should fellow, as it says that "men have to honor past things and obey present ones; and they should desire good princes and tolerate them, however they may be made. "[37], Machiavelli begins Chapter 11 explaining the considerable power to the tribunes of the plebs: "The power of the tribunes of the plebs in the city of Rome was great, and it was necessary, as had been discoursed of by us many times, because otherwise one would not have been able to place a check on the ambition of the nobility, which would have corrupted that republic a long time before it did corrupt itself. "[15] In the Roman Republic, "the orders that drew the Roman republic back toward its beginning were the tribunes of the plebs, the censors, and all the other laws that went against the ambition and the insolence of men. [2] Machiavelli says that the first book will discuss things that happened inside of Rome as the result of public counsel (I 1.6), the second, decisions made by the Roman people pertaining to the increase of its empire (II Pr.3), and the third, how the actions of particular men made Rome great (III 1.6). I) Quale fu più cagione dello imperio che acquistarono i romani, o la virtù, o la fortuna. [88], Chapter 46 concerns that "not only does one city have certain modes and institutions diverse from another, and procreates men either harder or more effeminate, but in the same city one sees such a difference to exist from one family to another. This sign could be divine or seen through a revelation. The Court of Rome sternly prohibited his book. "[14] Later on Machiavelli states that it is not preferable to have renewal carried out by an external force as "it is so dangerous that it is not in any way to be desired. They valued these men and what they did so much that they were willing to give free commissions in order to show them how they felt about them. "[18], The heading for Chapter 3 states "That it is necessary to kill the sons of Brutus if one wishes to maintain a newly acquired freedom. Dalla storiografia antica ai Discorsi di Machiavelli, «Rivista storica italiana», 2012, 124, pp. Un italiano ancor oggi vivo, sanguigno, da cui sprigionano l’acume e l’esperienza diplomatica del segretario fiorentino. [2], Machiavelli notes that Rome's actions as recounted by Livy proceeded either by "public counsel" or by "private counsel," and that they concerned either things inside the city or things outside the city, yielding four possible combinations. Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio. "[77] Machiavelli writes that "since men judging things by the end, all the ill that results from it is attributed to the author of the counsel; and if good results from it, he is commended for it, but the reward by far does not counterbalance the harm. He states that there are six main different types of government, three of which are good, but "no precaution will prevent it from slipping into its opposite, so closely are the virtues and vices of the two related. [14] The usage of that phrase puts the event in a punitive light, as if Rome is a disobedient child being beat back into shape. 1517) by the Italian writer and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.The Discourses were published posthumously with papal privilege in 1531. When the battle was over, he surrendered his power and returned to his small villa. Faccio perciò seguire qui alcune precisazioni di merito, … Le migliori offerte per Discorsi di Niccolò Machavelli sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio . Claims that humility and pride are two separate things and do not go hand in hand. Although the mode of seizing the kingdom had been extraordinary and hateful, nonetheless, if he had observed the ancient orders of the other kings, he would have been endured and would not have excited the senate and plebs against him so as to take the state away from him. Chapter 10 talks about how the common opinion of money being the sinew of war is actually incorrect. Spurius's hopes to win over the Plebs with gifts were dashed when they refused him, knowing that it would cost them their freedom. I Discorsi sono di tre libri: Il primo comprende un proemio e 60 moduli e tratta dei problemi di politica interna di Roma (organizzazione della Repubblica Romana, leggi interne e loro genesi, rapporti fra plebe e nobiltà, ecc . Molti hanno avuta opinione, ed in tra' quali Plutarco, gravissimo scrittore, che 'l popolo romano nello acquistare lo imperio fosse più favorito dalla fortuna che dalla virtù. Il Principe: e Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio Volume 1 of Biblioteca dei comuni italiani. 709 II concetto di ((corruzione)) nei > di fattori esterni allo Stato, che sono anche i piu' pericolosi, oppure di fattori interni: E quanto a questi, conviene che nasca o da una legge, la quale spesso rivegga il conto agli uomini che sono in quel corpo; o veramente da uno uomo buono che "[81] In a captain demanding of his troop to follow his deeds, not his words, there seems to be great success. 82%: : Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio Niccolò Machiavelli Author (ISBN: 9788835849520) 1531, StreetLib, in italiano, anche come e-book. "[18] He refers to the episode where Brutus sentenced his own sons to death when they entered into a plot to restore the Tarquin dynasty, Machiavelli writes that, "...after a change of state, either from republic to tyranny or from tyranny to republic, a memorable execution against the enemies of present conditions is necessary. 3. He declares his intention to overcome this view of the ancient world by examining Livy and modern politics. The book then slightly shifts focus to discussing the reformation of a state. According to Machiavelli, "...a good captain among his other orders ought to order whoever are those who have to pick up his voice and relay it to others, and accustom his soldiers not to believe any but them and his captains not say anything but what has been commissioned by him. Machiavelli justifies dedicating the Discourses to his two friends because they deserve to be princes, even if they lack principalities, and he criticizes the custom (which he had adopted in The Prince) of dedicating works to men who are princes but do not deserve to be. Machiavelli then turns his attention toward the renewal of sects, arguing that "...our religion, which would be altogether eliminated if it had not been drawn back toward its beginning by Saint Francis and Saint Dominick. English: The Discourses on Livy (Italian: Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, literally "Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livy") is a work of political history and philosophy written in the early 16th century (ca. [24] Machiavelli gives examples of how any man can create a conspiracy, ranging from the nobleman who assassinated King Philip of Macedon to the Spanish peasant who stabbed King Ferdinand in the neck. Discourses on Livy. "[64] Machiavelli relates this belief to when, in his own times, Florence conquered the city of Pistoia. Conquista, cittadinanza e conflitto nei Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, Roma 2011; P. Desideri, Repubblica romana e libertà politica. [50] Machiavelli relates the point of Chapter 19 to a moment in modern history; when, in 1498, Florence went to war with Venice and was able to predict the enemy army's movements and win the war. Discourses on Livy. 54%: Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio Niccolò Machiavelli Author (ISBN: 2940014007672) 1521, Editore: LA CASE, anche come e-book. Continuing with this, weak republics are not truly able to make important decisions and that any change will come from necessity. Esempi. Perché rileggere oggi i “Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio” di Niccolò Machiavelli? [82], The topic of Chapter 39 is "That a captain ought to be a knower of sites. Also, he says that a Prince or republic should not deny citizens necessities. [27] Another example from Roman history Machiavelli raises is the Pisonian conspiracy against Nero. [65] He establishes that it is impossible to rule a divided city. "[22] Machiavelli immediately makes it clear that "the prince who has excited this universal hatred against himself has particular individuals who have been more offended by him and whose desire to avenge themselves. Leo Strauss on Modernity and Economics", Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, On the Method of Dealing with the Rebellious Peoples of Valdichiana, Discourse on Reforming the Government of Florence, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Discourses_on_Livy&oldid=994346596, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 06:39. Claimed that the military esteemed the military on foot much more than military on horseback. "[76] Machiavelli brings up the example of Titus Manlius who, upon rescuing his father, the "filial piety"[76] displayed inspired the people and led to Titus Manlius being put in second command of the tribunes of the legions. He also gives similar advice to "princes who have become tyrants of their fatherlands". "[49], The heading for Chapter 19 declares that "Nothing is more worthy of a captain than to foretell the policies of the enemy. He traces this to an improper reading of history that suggests that imitation of ancient political virtue is impossible. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Chapter 19 talks about how the acquisitions by Republics that are not well ordered and that do not proceed according to Roman virtue are for their ruin, not their exaltation. Ora, Giorgio Cadoni rimprovera a un mio precedente contributo pubblicato su questo sito di non aver tenuto presente che il fine della dottrina del «farsi compagni» espressa nei Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio è unicamente la conquista, nonché varie altre cose. Tutto parte da un testo-base: la prima Deca della storia di Roma del grande storico latino Tito Livio . Luckily, the first three kings each had a certain strength, which aided the city. [82], In Chapter 40, Machiavelli states, "Although the use of fraud in every action is detestable, nonetheless in managing war it is a praiseworthy and glorious thing, and he who overcomes the enemy with fraud is praised as much as the one who overcomes it with force. "[88] he raises the story of Decius and Fabius, two Roman consuls at war with the Samnites and Etruscans. The captain must esteemed of a quality that they trust in his prudence. The themes of pride and corruption appear many times throughout The Discourses and Machiavelli believes that it is very easy for a person to be corrupted. ... Apri un sito e guadagna con Altervista - Disclaimer - Segnala abuso - Privacy Policy - Personalizza tracciamento pubblicitario, DELL’ARTE DELLA GUERRA (The Art of War) – Niccolò Machiavelli, Opere minori di Machiavelli – Canti – L’asino d’oro – Clizia – Belfagor – Dialogo sulle lingue – Primo Decennale – Secondo Decennale – Capitoli. DISCORSI SULLA PRIMA DECA DI TITO LIVIO. "[56] As one can assume from the title, two very different men achieved very similar glory. Thinking the battle to be all but over, Cassius killed himself. "[49] He brings up the consul Claudius Nero, who "throughout the city he was spoken of indecently, not without great dishonor and indignation for him. He explains that the Romans were not corrupt when they regained their freedom and could thus keep it. Tema. necessario scrivere, sopra tutti quelli libri di Tito Livio che dalla malignità de' tempi non ci sono stati intercetti, quello che io, secondo le cognizione delle antique e moderne cose, iudicherò essere necessario per maggiore intelligenzia di essi, a ciò che coloro che leggeranno queste mia DISCORSI SOPRA LA PRIMA DECA DI TITO LIVIO. Niccolò Machiavelli nasce a Firenze nel 1469. [51], In Chapter 19, Machiavelli states that "it appears in governing a multitude, it is better to be humane rather than proud, merciful rather than cruel. Machiavelli then delves into more historical events. '"[36] If one hides in his city, far from the field of battle, he "leaves one's country as prey to the enemy. So by the contrary I affirm that the proceeding of Manlius is harmful in a prince and useful in a citizen, and especially to the fatherland..."[58], Chapter 23 concerns "For what cause Camillus was expelled from Rome.